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Date: Fri, 23 Jun 2017 13:59:56 -0700
From: Kees Cook <>
To: Andrew Morton <>
Cc: Kees Cook <>,,,
	Rik van Riel <>,
	Ard Biesheuvel <>,
	Daniel Micay <>,
	Qualys Security Advisory <>,
	Russell King <>,
	Catalin Marinas <>,
	Will Deacon <>,
	Benjamin Herrenschmidt <>,
	Paul Mackerras <>,
	Michael Ellerman <>,
	Martin Schwidefsky <>,
	Heiko Carstens <>,
	Thomas Gleixner <>,
	Ingo Molnar <>,
	"H. Peter Anvin" <>,
	Alexander Viro <>,
	Pratyush Anand <>,
	James Hogan <>,
	Dmitry Safonov <>,
	Grzegorz Andrejczuk <>,
	Masahiro Yamada <>,,,,,,
Subject: [PATCH v2 1/5] binfmt_elf: Use ELF_ET_DYN_BASE only for PIE

The ELF_ET_DYN_BASE position was originally intended to keep loaders
away from ET_EXEC binaries. (For example, running "/lib/
/bin/cat" might cause the subsequent load of /bin/cat into where the
loader had been loaded.) With the advent of PIE (ET_DYN binaries with
an INTERP Program Header), ELF_ET_DYN_BASE continued to be used since
the kernel was only looking at ET_DYN. However, since ELF_ET_DYN_BASE
is traditionally set at the top 1/3rd of the TASK_SIZE, a substantial
portion of the address space is unused.

For 32-bit tasks when RLIMIT_STACK is set to RLIM_INFINITY, programs
are loaded below the mmap region. This means they can be made to collide
(CVE-2017-1000370) or nearly collide (CVE-2017-1000371) with pathological
stack regions. Lowering ELF_ET_DYN_BASE solves both by moving programs
above the mmap region in all cases, and will now additionally avoid
programs falling back to the mmap region by enforcing MAP_FIXED for
program loads (i.e. if it would have collided with the stack, now it
will fail to load instead of falling back to the mmap region).

To allow for a lower ELF_ET_DYN_BASE, loaders (ET_DYN without INTERP)
are loaded into the mmap region, leaving space available for either an
ET_EXEC binary with a fixed location or PIE being loaded into mmap by the
loader. Only PIE programs are loaded offset from ELF_ET_DYN_BASE, which
means architectures can now safely lower their values without risk of
loaders colliding with their subsequently loaded programs.

For 64-bit, ELF_ET_DYN_BASE is best set to 4GB to allow runtimes to
use the entire 32-bit address space for 32-bit pointers. For 32-bit,
4MB is used as the traditional minimum load location, likely to avoid
historically requiring a 4MB page table entry when only a portion of the
first 4MB would be used (since the NULL address is avoided).

Thanks to PaX Team, Daniel Micay, and Rik van Riel for inspiration and
suggestions on how to implement this solution.

Fixes: d1fd836dcf00 ("mm: split ET_DYN ASLR from mmap ASLR")
Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
Acked-by: Rik van Riel <>
 arch/x86/include/asm/elf.h | 13 +++++-----
 fs/binfmt_elf.c            | 59 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
 2 files changed, 58 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/elf.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/elf.h
index e8ab9a46bc68..1c18d83d3f09 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/elf.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/elf.h
@@ -245,12 +245,13 @@ extern int force_personality32;
 #define ELF_EXEC_PAGESIZE	4096
-/* This is the location that an ET_DYN program is loaded if exec'ed.  Typical
-   use of this is to invoke "./ someprog" to test out a new version of
-   the loader.  We need to make sure that it is out of the way of the program
-   that it will "exec", and that there is sufficient room for the brk.  */
-#define ELF_ET_DYN_BASE		(TASK_SIZE / 3 * 2)
+ * This is the base location for PIE (ET_DYN with INTERP) loads. On
+ * 64-bit, this is raised to 4GB to leave the entire 32-bit address
+ * space open for things that want to use the area for 32-bit pointers.
+ */
+#define ELF_ET_DYN_BASE		(mmap_is_ia32() ? 0x000400000UL : \
+						  0x100000000UL)
 /* This yields a mask that user programs can use to figure out what
    instruction set this CPU supports.  This could be done in user space,
diff --git a/fs/binfmt_elf.c b/fs/binfmt_elf.c
index ef4fb234bb5b..879ff9c7ffd0 100644
--- a/fs/binfmt_elf.c
+++ b/fs/binfmt_elf.c
@@ -925,17 +925,60 @@ static int load_elf_binary(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
 		vaddr = elf_ppnt->p_vaddr;
+		/*
+		 * If we are loading ET_EXEC or we have already performed
+		 * the ET_DYN load_addr calculations, proceed normally.
+		 */
 		if (loc->elf_ex.e_type == ET_EXEC || load_addr_set) {
 			elf_flags |= MAP_FIXED;
 		} else if (loc->elf_ex.e_type == ET_DYN) {
-			/* Try and get dynamic programs out of the way of the
-			 * default mmap base, as well as whatever program they
-			 * might try to exec.  This is because the brk will
-			 * follow the loader, and is not movable.  */
-			load_bias = ELF_ET_DYN_BASE - vaddr;
-			if (current->flags & PF_RANDOMIZE)
-				load_bias += arch_mmap_rnd();
-			load_bias = ELF_PAGESTART(load_bias);
+			/*
+			 * This logic is run once for the first LOAD Program
+			 * Header for ET_DYN binaries to calculate the
+			 * randomization (load_bias) for all the LOAD
+			 * Program Headers, and to calculate the entire
+			 * size of the ELF mapping (total_size). (Note that
+			 * load_addr_set is set to true later once the
+			 * initial mapping is performed.)
+			 *
+			 * There are effectively two types of ET_DYN
+			 * binaries: programs (i.e. PIE: ET_DYN with INTERP)
+			 * and loaders (ET_DYN without INTERP, since they
+			 * _are_ the ELF interpreter). The loaders must
+			 * be loaded away from programs since the program
+			 * may otherwise collide with the loader (especially
+			 * for ET_EXEC which does not have a randomized
+			 * position). For example to handle invocations of
+			 * "./ someprog" to test out a new version of
+			 * the loader, the subsequent program that the
+			 * loader loads must avoid the loader itself, so
+			 * they cannot share the same load range. Sufficient
+			 * room for the brk must be allocated with the
+			 * loader as well, since brk must be available with
+			 * the loader.
+			 *
+			 * Therefore, programs are loaded offset from
+			 * ELF_ET_DYN_BASE and loaders are loaded into the
+			 * independently randomized mmap region (0 load_bias
+			 * without MAP_FIXED).
+			 */
+			if (elf_interpreter) {
+				load_bias = ELF_ET_DYN_BASE;
+				if (current->flags & PF_RANDOMIZE)
+					load_bias += arch_mmap_rnd();
+				elf_flags |= MAP_FIXED;
+			} else
+				load_bias = 0;
+			/*
+			 * Since load_bias is used for all subsequent loading
+			 * calculations, we must lower it by the first vaddr
+			 * so that the remaining calculations based on the
+			 * ELF vaddrs will be correctly offset. The result
+			 * is then page aligned.
+			 */
+			load_bias = ELF_PAGESTART(load_bias - vaddr);
 			total_size = total_mapping_size(elf_phdata,
 			if (!total_size) {

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